FAQ / Definitions
What is Total Chlorine?
Total Chlorine is chlorine that is present in free or combined (bound) form, or in both forms.
What is Free Available Chlorine?
Free Available Chlorine (FAC) is chlorine that is present in the form of Hypochlorous Acid, hypochlorite ions or as dissolved elemental chlorine. FAC includes all chlorine species that are not combined with ammonia (or other nitrogenous compounds) to form chloramine. It is ‘free’ in the sense that it has not yet reacted with anything, and ‘available’ in the sense that it can and will react if needed.
What is Combined Chlorine?
Combined Chlorine is that fraction of the total chlorine that is present in the form of chloramines or organic chloramines. In other words: Chlorine that is bound to other elements or organic compounds but is still an effective disinfectant. Combined chlorine has been found to be more effective than free chlorine in controlling post-disinfection bacterial growth. Chloramines are an example of combined chlorine.
What is Total Residual Chlorine?
Total Residual Chlorine (TRC) is the sum of free available residual chlorine and combined (bound) residual chlorine. It is the amount of measurable chlorine remaining after treating water with chlorine; i.e., the amount of chlorine left in water after the chlorine demand has been satisfied
What is Free Available Residual Chlorine?
Free Available Residual Chlorine (FRC) is Free Available Chlorine after treating the water with chlorine. It is that portion of the total available residual chlorine composed of Dissolved Chlorine gas (Cl2), Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl), and/or Hypochlorite Ion (OCl-) remaining in water after chlorination. This does not include chlorine that has combined with ammonia, nitrogen, or other compounds.
What is Combined Residual Chlorine?
Combined Residual Chlorine is Chlorine that has reacted with organics to form chloro-organics and chloramines. This is a chlorine residual that, because it has reacted with other chemicals in the water, has lost some of its disinfecting strength.
What is Chlorine Demand?
Chlorine Demand is the difference between the amount of chlorine added to water and the amount of residual chlorine remaining after a given contact time. Chlorine demand may change with dosage, time, temperature, pH, and nature and amount of the impurities in the water.
What is Chlorine Requirement?
Chlorine Requirement is the amount of chlorine which is needed for a particular purpose. Some reasons for adding chlorine are reducing the number of bacteria, obtaining a particular chlorine residual, or oxidizing some substance in the water. In each case, a definite dosage of chlorine will be necessary. This dosage is the chlorine requirement.
What are Chloramines?
Chloramines are compounds formed by the reaction of chlorine and ammonia-nitrogen in water.
What is Hypochlorous Acid?
What is Sodium Hypochlorite?
Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO) is a chlorine compound commercially produced by the electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution
What is Sodium Chloride?
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is also known as common salt or table salt. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the fluid of many multicellular organisms, and is commonly used as food preservative.
What is Sodium Chlorite and Sodium Chlorate?
Sodium Chlorite is derived indirectly from Sodium Chlorate. Sodium Chlorate is synthesised from the electrolysis of a hot Sodium Chloride solution in a mixed electrode tank. It can also be synthesised by passing Chlorine gas through a Sodium Hydroxide solution. The main oxidation by-products of Chloride Dioxide are the chlorite and chlorate ions. It has been reported that chlorite and chlorate ions at concentrations > 100 mg/L can cause hematological effects in mice, rats, monkeys, cats and humans. For this reason it is currently recommended to monitor the chlorite and chlorate ions residuals in treated water. Sodium Chlorite should be protected from inadvertent contamination by organic materials to avoid the formation of an explosive mixture.
What is Sodium Hydroxide?
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda, is produced (along with chlorine and hydrogen) via the chloralkali process. This involves the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of Sodium Chloride. The Sodium Hydroxide builds up at the cathode, where water is reduced to Hydrogen gas and Hydroxide ion.
What is Chloride Dioxide?
Chlorine Dioxide is a reddish-yellow gas which is one of several known oxides of Chlorine. Chlorine Dioxide is relatively stable in the gas and liquid states, but can explode easily. For this reason, it is never handled in its pure form.
What is Hydrogen Peroxide?
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. It has strong oxidizing properties and is useful as a powerful bleaching agent and a disinfectant.
Remark: NEW has 50-500ppm Free Available Chlorine which consists of Hypochlorous Acid, Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Chloride. Addition of NEW to water results in less formation of THM’s and Chloramines. No Sodium Chlorite and Chlorates ions are found in NEW. Alkaline water consists Sodium Hydroxide
Bacteria, Pathogens, Germs, Viruses, Fungi, Molds, Spores and Microorganisms
What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are single-celled living organisms ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth. They are both harmful and useful to the environment and animals, including humans. Some bacteria act as pathogens and cause deseases and illness.
What are Anaerobic Bacteria?
Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth. These bacteria cannot live or grow in the presence of oxygen.
What are Aerobic Bacteria?
Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that have an oxygen-based metbolism. Aerobes use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy.
What is a Pathogen?
A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. A pathogen can be a bacteria, a virus, fungi or a parasite. Advances in food safety, hygiene, and water treatment have reduced the threat from some pathogens.
What is a Germ or Bug?
A germ or bug is an informal term for a pathogen, particularly bacteria.
What is a virus?
A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. Examples of diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, smallpox, and HIV. Connections are being studied which may link viruses to neurological diseases such as multiple scleroses and chronic fatigue syndrome.
What is Fungi?
A fungus (plural fungi) is an organism that digests its food externally and absorbs the nutrient molecules into its cells. Fungi occur in every environment on earth and play very important roles in most ecosystems. Some fungi are parasites on plants and animals, including humans. They are responsible for numerous diseases, such as athlete’s foot and ringworm in humans.
What is Yeast?
Yeasts are single-celled fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread and ferment alcoholic beverages. A few yeasts, such as Candida albicans, can cause infection in humans.
What is Mold?
Molds, or mould, are various fungi that cover surfaces in the form of biofilm and usually produce masses of spores. Mold is often a problem in damp areas such as basements and bathrooms, and after floods. It can be seen on surfaces of walls but also grows deep within, and produces a distinctive dusty, slightly pungent smell. It grows on food in closed containers, even in refrigerators.
What are Spores?
A spore is a reproductive mechanism that is adapted for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. The spore can develop into a new organism by dividing by mitosis without fusing with another cell. The term may also refer to the resting stage in the life cycle of some bacteria, more commonly referred to as the endospore. Fungi that produce spores are known as sporogenous, and those that do not are asporogenous.
What is a Microorganism or a Microbe?
A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). Microorganisms are often illustrated using single-celled, or unicellular organisms.
What is Algae?
Algae range from single-celled organisms to multi-cellular organisms, some with fairly complex differentiated form and (if marine) called seaweeds. All algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the cyanobacteria, and produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. Algae are usually found in damp places or bodies of water and thus are common in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments
What is Biofilm?
A biofilm is a complex aggregation of microorganisms marked by the excretion of a protective and adhesive matrix. Formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating microorganisms to a surface. These first colonists adhere to the surface, and if they are not immediately separated from the surface, they can anchor themselves more permanently using cell adhesion molecules. Once colonization has begun, the biofilm grows through a combination of cell division and recruitment. Biofilms can contain many different types of microorganisms, such as bacteria, protozoa and algae. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide variety of microbial infections in the body, including common problems such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle ear infections, formation of dental plaque, gingivitis and coating contact lenses. Biofilms cause infection in drinking water and can lead to corrosion of water systems.
Remark: NEW can successfully eradicate biofilm, and is a highly effective disinfectant against Bacteria, Viruses, Pathogens, Germs, Bugs, Spores, Algae, Yeast, Mold and Fungi .
Reduction, Oxidation, Disinfection, Sanitation, Deodorizing and Sterilizing
What is Reduction?
Reduction describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion.
What is Oxidation?
Oxidation describes the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion.
What is an Oxidizing Agent?
Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative and are known as oxidizing agents, oxidants or oxidizers. An oxidizing agent is a chemical compound that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or ORP reactions. The oxidant removes electrons from another substance, and in doing so, becomes reduced in the process.
What is Disinfection?
Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection
What is Sanitation?
Sanitation is a term for the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste materials, particularly human excrement. Sanitation is an important public health measure which is essential for the prevention of disease.
What is Deodorizing?
Deodorants inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause odors. Deodorants are usually alcohol based which gives an effective antibacterial kill.
What is Sterilization?
Sterilization is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium.
Remark: NEW is effective in oxidation, disinfection, sanitation, deodorizing and sterilization processes. NEW is therefore an effective oxidizer, disinfectant, deodorant and sterilizing agent.
Pesticide, Germicide, Bactericide, Fungicide, Virucide
What is a Pesticide?
Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, superoxidated water or biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria) used against pests including insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread disease or are a nuisance. Pesticides are usually, but not always, poisonous to humans.
What is Biocide?
A biocide is a Chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms. A biocide can be:
- A pesticide, which includes fungicides, herbicides, algicides and rodenticides.
- An antimicrobial, which includes germicides, antibiotics, antibacterials, antivirals, antifungi, antiprotozoas and antiparasites.
What is an Antiseptic?
An antiseptic is a substance that prevents the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses) on the living tissues/skin of the body. Some are true germicides, capable of destroying the bacteria, whilst others merely prevent or inhibit their growth. The objective of antiseptics is to reduce the possibility of infection by germs.
What is a Fungicide?
Fungicides are chemical compounds used to prevent the spread of fungi in gardens and crops, which can cause serious damage to the plants. Fungicides are also used to fight fungal infections
What is a Bactericide?
What is a Sporicide?
A sporicide is a substance that kills spores or spore-forming fungi and bacteria
What is a Viricide?
A viricide is an antiseptic which reliably deactivates or destroys a virus.
Remark: NEW can be successfully used as a pesticide, biocide, Antiseptic, Fungicide, Bactericide, Sporicide or Viricide.
Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, Acute Toxicity, Chronic Toxicity, Genotoxicity
What is Toxicity?
Toxicity is a measure of the degree to which something is toxic or poisonous.
What is Cytotoxicity?
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance or an immune cell.
What is Acute Toxicity?
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours). To be described as acute toxicity, the adverse effects should occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance.
What is Chronic Toxicity?
Chronic toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism when that organism is exposed to the substance continuously or repeatedly, often at low levels, over a long time period (months or years).
What is Genotoxicity?
Genotoxic substances are those chemical compounds capable of causing genetic mutation and of contributing to the development of tumors.
Remark: NEW proved not to be toxic to animals, insects and humans. Toxicity levels are negligible due to low chemical load in NEW
Environmental, Biodegradable, Metastable, Electrons, Ion, Atoms
What is Environmentally Friendly?
Minimizing harm to the natural world, e.g. by using biodegradable ingredients
What is Biodegradable?
Able to decompose naturally; made of substances that will decay relatively quickly as a result of the action of bacteria; can be broken down into elements such as carbon that are recycled naturally
What is Metastable?
Metastability in molecules is the ability of a non-equilibrium chemical state to persist for a long period of time. Metastable liquids are liquids that persist in their existing equilibrium when undisturbed, but are able to pass to a more stable equilibrium when sufficiently disturbed by means of oxidation. Usually, metastability is due to a relatively slow phase transformation. In general, as long liquids are airtight and are not subject to UV-light or heat, they remain in the same chemical state.
What is an Electrolyzed (Electrochemically Activated) Substance?
An electrolyzed substance is any material substance obtained by means of electrolysis. Electrolyzed substances are metastable and biodegradable.
What is a Biological Substance?
A biological substance is any material derived from animal products or other biological sources.
What is a Chemical Substance?
A chemical substance is any material used in or obtained by a process in chemistry. A chemical element is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into different substances by ordinary chemical methods.
What is an Atom?
The smallest particle of an element is an atom, which consists of electrons centered about a nucleus of protons and neutrons. A chemical element consists of atoms with the same number of protons.
What are Electrons?
An electron is a lightweight particle that carries an electric charge. The electron participates in electromagnetic interactions. Together with the nucleus, electrons make up atoms; they are responsible for chemical bonding. The flow of electricity in the electrochemical cells is primarily due to the movement of electrons.
What is a Molecule?
A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the element or compound. A chemical compound consists of molecules composed of the same atoms in the same configuration.
What is an ion?
An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge, having lost (cation) or gained (anion) an electron. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion, for its attraction to anodes; a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation for its attraction to cathodes.
Remark: NEW is not harmful for the environment. It is biodegradable and metastable, and is not a chemical or biological agent, but an electrochemically activated liquid.
Methods of Usage
What is Dosing?
Dosing involves feeding a disinfectant (NEW) into a process fluid, atmosphere or to another media in intervals to give NEW sufficient time to react or show the results
What is Misting?
A mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. Misting is executed with the help of aerosols. Generally, misting NEW causes the floor to get wet.
What is Fogging?
Fog is a cloud in contact with the ground. Artificial fog is generated by means of aerosols or is created by vaporizing water. Fogging of NEW will not cause the floor to get wet.
What is Spraying?
Spraying involves disinfecting a surface by applying NEW using a spray gun or high pressure cleaner. Spraying allows NEW sufficient contact time with the surface for disinfection.
What is Soaking?
Soaking involves placing a subject in a bath and allowing the subject to become saturated or permeated with NEW.
What is Rinsing?
Rinsing is accomplished by washing lightly, as by pouring NEW into or over a subject.
What is Immersing?
Immersing involves plunging a subject into or placing it under a liquid, also known as dipping or sinking.
Remark: NEW may be dosed, misted, fogged, and sprayed to disinfect water, surfaces and air. Items may be soaked or immersed in NEW for disinfection.
pH, ORP , Conductivity, TDS and Salinity
What is pH?
pH (potential of hydrogen) is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution and, therefore, its acidity or alkalinity. Most substances have a pH in the range 0 to 14. Aqueous solutions with pH values lower than 7 are considered acidic, while pH values higher than 7 are considered alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be pH neutral.
What is ORP?
ORP or Oxidation-Reduction Potential of redox reactions are the foundation of electrochemical cells. Redox reactions include all electrochemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. The term REDOX comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation. Oxidation describes the loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion, whereas reduction describes the gain of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion.
What is Conductivity?
Electrical conductivity is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electric current.
What are TDS?
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are the total amount of mobile charged ions, including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water. They are expressed in units of mg per unit volume of water (mg/L), and are also referred to as parts per million (ppm). TDS is directly related to the purity of water and the quality of water purification systems, and affects everything that consumes, lives in, or uses water, whether organic or inorganic. High TDS indicates hard water, which causes scale buildup in pipes and valves and inhibits performance. Since TDS is related to water hardness, using a TDS meter is the first step in determining the degree of hardness of water.
What is Salinity?
Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. Salinity influences the types of organisms that live in a body of water. As well, salinity influences the kinds of plants that will grow either in a water body, or on land fed by water (or by ground water). Organisms (mostly bacteria) that can live in very salty conditions are classified as halophiles.